The 10 New Rules of Spay & Neuter… in kittens (2023)

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Here are some links to further resources to explore this topic !

Rule #1 : Inform to transform

Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes (Murray et al, 2015)

Poor owner knowledge of feline reproduction contributes to the high proportion of accidental litters born to UK pet cats (Welsh et al, 2014)

Rule #2 : Stay Current – Save Lives

Longevity and mortality in cats: A single institution necropsy study of 3108 cases (1989-2019) (Kent et al, 2022)

Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats (Lowe LM, 2015)

Pyometra in Small Animals 2.0 (Hagman R, 2022)

A Review of Sterilisation Practices in Dogs and Cat and Impact on the Individual Animal (De Kramer K, May K, 2015)

Associations between early neutering, obesity, outdoor access, trauma and feline degenerative joint disease (Maniaki et al, 2021)

Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in cats (Spain et al, 2004)

Rule #3 : Stay Current – Complete Picture

Effects of neutering on bodyweight, metabolic rate and glucose tolerance of domestic cats (Fettman et al, 1997)

Effects of neutering on hormonal concentrations and energy requirements in male and female cats (Hoenig et al, 2002)

Impact of ovariohysterectomy and food intake on body composition, physical activity, and adipose gene expression in cats (Belsito et al, 2009)

Neutering is not associated with early-onset urethral obstruction in cats (de Oliveira Sampaio et al, 2022)

An Ancient Practice but a New Paradigm: Personal Choice for the Age to Spay or Neuter a Dog (Hart et al, 2021)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 17 Maine Coon cats (Borak et al, 2017)

Effect of neutering and breed on femoral and tibial physeal closure times in male and female domestic cats (Perry et al, 2013)

Long-term effect of neutering on plasma luteinising hormone concentration in cats (Aguiar et al, 2021)

Possible Relationship between Long-Term Adverse Health Effects of Gonad-Removing Surgical Sterilization and Luteinizing Hormone in Dogs (Kutzler MA, 2020)

Effects of obesity, energy restriction and neutering on the faecal microbiota of cats (Fischer et al, 2017)

Rule #4 : Age Matters – f(context, individual)

AVMA Recommendation : Veterinary Task Force on Feline Sterilization Recommendations for Age of Spay and Neuter Surgery, 2016

BVA Recommendation : Neutering of cats and dogs, 2019

ASV Recommendation : The Association of Shelter Veterinarians’ 2016 Veterinary Medical Care Guidelines for Spay-Neuter Programs, 2016

Effects of prepubertal gonadectomy on physical and behavioral development in cats (Stubbs et al, 1996)

The neuter status of cats at four and six months of age is strongly associated with the owners’ intended age of neutering (Welsh et al, 2013)

Rule #5 : Do not fear Pediatric Anesthesia

Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats (Lowe LM, 2015)

Evaluation of targeted bupivacaine for reducing acute postoperative pain in cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy (Mack Fudge et al, 2020)

Methadone in combination with medetomidine as premedication prior to ovariohysterectomy and castration in the cat (Slingsby et al, 2014)

Feline post-sterilization hyphema (Schenk et al, 2020)

RULE #6 : Do not fear pediatric surgery

Current perspectives on the optimal age to spay/castrate dogs and cats (Lowe LM, 2015)

Evaluation of learning curves for ovariohysterectomy of dogs and cats and castration of dogs (Freeman et al, 2017)

Rule #7 : Neuter – And Nourish

Environmental risk factors in puppies and kittens for developing chronic disorders in adulthood: A call for research on developmental programming (Gaillard et al, 2022)

Neutering in dogs and cats: current scientific evidence and importance of adequate nutritional management (Vendramini et al, 2020)

Weight gain in gonadectomized normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient male domestic cats results from increased food intake and not decreased energy expenditure (Kanchuk et al, 2003)

The impact of time of neutering on weight gain and energy intake in female kittens (Allaway et al, 2017)

Rule #8 : Neuter – And Monitor

Growth standard charts for monitoring bodyweight in dogs of different sizes (Salt et al, 2017)

Protocols in Veterinary Practice – Part I (Baralon et al, 2022)

Protocols in Veterinary Practice – Part II (Baralon et al, 2022)

Rule #9 : Be aware of the alternatives

Long-term contraception in a small implant: A review of Suprelorin (deslorelin) studies in cats (Fontaine C, 2015)

Effect of melatonin on the reproductive cycle in female cats: a review of clinical experiences and previous studies (Schäfer-Somi S, 2017)

Rule #10 : Stay tuned – Change is Coming

Alliance for Contraception in Cats & Dogs Website

My online courses

Veterinary Pediatrics Revisited (2022)

Newborn Puppies : 47 Brilliant Tips to Optimize Their Health (2022)

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